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🍽️ sulfadiazine (antibiotic)

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  1. Treatment of Bacterial Infections: Sulfadiazine is primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible bacteria. It is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including Streptococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and some strains of Chlamydia and Nocardia.

  2. Mechanism of Action: Sulfadiazine works by inhibiting the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid, a precursor to folate, which is essential for bacterial growth. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of dihydropteroate synthase, an enzyme involved in the folate synthesis pathway. By interfering with folate production, sulfadiazine disrupts bacterial DNA synthesis and ultimately inhibits bacterial growth and reproduction.

  3. Broad Spectrum of Activity: Sulfadiazine exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against various bacterial pathogens, making it useful for the treatment of different types of infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and certain sexually transmitted infections.

  4. Combination Therapy: Sulfadiazine is sometimes used in combination with other antibiotics, such as trimethoprim or pyrimethamine, to enhance its antibacterial effects. These combinations are often used to treat specific infections, such as toxoplasmosis, nocardiosis, or urinary tract infections caused by resistant bacteria.

  5. Topical Formulations: Sulfadiazine is available in topical formulations for the treatment of burns and wounds. Silver sulfadiazine cream is commonly used as a topical antimicrobial agent to prevent and treat infection in burn patients. It helps reduce bacterial colonization and promotes wound healing by creating a barrier against pathogens.

  6. Adverse Effects: Common side effects of sulfadiazine may include gastrointestinal disturbances (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), allergic reactions (e.g., rash, itching, hives), photosensitivity, and hematological abnormalities (e.g., leukopenia, thrombocytopenia). Rare but serious adverse effects may include Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and hemolytic anemia.

  7. Pregnancy and Lactation: Sulfadiazine should be used with caution during pregnancy, especially during the third trimester, as it may increase the risk of hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus in newborns. It may also be excreted in breast milk, so breastfeeding should be avoided while taking sulfadiazine.

  8. Bacterial Resistance: Like other antibiotics, the overuse or misuse of sulfadiazine can contribute to the development of bacterial resistance. It is essential to use sulfadiazine judiciously and according to specific treatment guidelines to minimize the risk of resistance and ensure optimal efficacy.

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Data Contradictions β€” Limits of Certainity

Impacted of sulfadiazine (antibiotic) On Probiotics

Rank Probiotic Impact
species Akkermansia muciniphila Reduces
species Bifidobacterium longum Reduces
subspecies Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis Reduces
subspecies Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Reduces

Bacteria Impacted by sulfadiazine (antibiotic)

We extend modifiers to include items that changes the parent and child taxa. I.e. for a species, that would be the genus that is belongs to and the strains in the species.

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Taxonomy Rank Effect Citations Notation
Eggerthella genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Bifidobacterium genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Lachnospira genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Bacteroides genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Blautia genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Akkermansia genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Mediterraneibacter genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Parabacteroides genus Decreases 👪 Source Study BMI, fat percent,blood pressure
Odoribacter genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Lacrimispora genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Coprococcus genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Enterocloster genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
Roseburia genus Decreases 👪 Source Study
unclassified Robinsoniella no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
unclassified Fusobacterium no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
unclassified Negativicoccus no rank Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Eggerthellales order Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Eggerthella lenta species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Bacteroides xylanisolvens species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Bifidobacterium longum species Decreases 📓 Source Study
[Ruminococcus] torques species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Lachnospira eligens species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Blautia obeum species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Akkermansia muciniphila species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Bacteroides caccae species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Anaerofustis stercorihominis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Asaccharospora irregularis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Negativicoccus sp. S5-A15 species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Paraprevotella clara species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Slackia sp. NATTS species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
[Collinsella] massiliensis species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Parvibacter caecicola species Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Parabacteroides distasonis species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Odoribacter splanchnicus species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Lacrimispora saccharolytica species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Coprococcus comes species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Enterocloster bolteae species Decreases 📓 Source Study
[Ruminococcus] gnavus species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Roseburia hominis species Decreases 📓 Source Study
Coriobacterineae suborder Decreases ⚗️ Source Study
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suillum subspecies Decreases 👶 Source Study
Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia group superphylum Decreases ⚗️ Source Study

Impact of sulfadiazine (antibiotic) on Conditions from US National Library of Medicine

A higher number indicates impact on more bacteria associated with the condition and confidence on the impact.

We have X bacteria high and Y low reported. We find that the modifier reduces some and increases other of these two groups. We just tally: X|reduces + Y|Increase = Positive   X|increases + Y|decrease = Negative.

Benefit Ratio:
Numbers above 0 have increasing positive effect.
Numbers below 0 have increasing negative effect.

Condition Positive Impact Negative Impact Benefit Ratio Impact
Acne 0.3 -0.3
ADHD 0.9 0.4 1.25
Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Glaucoma 0 0 0
Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) 0.3 0.8 -1.67
Allergies 1.3 0.4 2.25
Allergy to milk products 0.2 0.3 -0.5
Alopecia (Hair Loss) 0.3 0.3
Alzheimer's disease 0.9 1.5 -0.67
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Motor Neuron 1.3 0.4 2.25
Ankylosing spondylitis 0.5 0.5 0
Anorexia Nervosa 0 0.7 0
Asthma 1.1 0.8 0.38
Atherosclerosis 0.3 0.3 0
Atrial fibrillation 1 0.5 1
Autism 2.6 2.5 0.04
Bipolar Disorder 0.3 0.5 -0.67
Brain Trauma 0.3 0.2 0.5
Carcinoma 1.2 0.8 0.5
Celiac Disease 0.3 1.7 -4.67
Cerebral Palsy 0.4 0.4 0
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 1.9 1.2 0.58
Chronic Kidney Disease 1.2 0.3 3
Chronic Lyme 0.2 -0.2
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 0.3 -0.3
Chronic Urticaria (Hives) 0.4 -0.4
Coagulation / Micro clot triggering bacteria 0 0.2 0
Colorectal Cancer 0.6 0.3 1
Constipation 0.5 0.2 1.5
Coronary artery disease 0 0.2 0
COVID-19 3.3 3 0.1
Crohn's Disease 1.5 1.7 -0.13
cystic fibrosis 0.5 -0.5
deep vein thrombosis 0 0
Depression 3.8 1.9 1
Dermatomyositis 0.3 -0.3
Eczema 0 0.3 0
Endometriosis 0.8 0.3 1.67
Epilepsy 0.9 1.3 -0.44
Fibromyalgia 0.3 0.5 -0.67
Functional constipation / chronic idiopathic constipation 1.3 1.4 -0.08
gallstone disease (gsd) 0.2 0.3 -0.5
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (Gerd) including Barrett's esophagus 0.4 -0.4
Generalized anxiety disorder 0.2 1 -4
Gout 0 0
Graves' disease 0.5 0.2 1.5
Halitosis 0.2 0.2
Hashimoto's thyroiditis 1.4 0.5 1.8
Histamine Issues,Mast Cell Issue, DAO Insufficiency 1 0.3 2.33
hypercholesterolemia (High Cholesterol) 0 0.4 0
hyperglycemia 1.3 -1.3
Hyperlipidemia (High Blood Fats) 0.4 0.4
hypersomnia 0.2 -0.2
hypertension (High Blood Pressure 0.7 1.2 -0.71
Hypothyroidism 0.9 -0.9
Hypoxia 0.5 0.5
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) 0.8 -0.8
Inflammatory Bowel Disease 0.9 2.1 -1.33
Insomnia 0.4 0.5 -0.25
Intelligence 0 0
Intracranial aneurysms 0.5 0.5
Irritable Bowel Syndrome 1.2 1.1 0.09
Liver Cirrhosis 1 0.7 0.43
Long COVID 2.1 2.4 -0.14
Low bone mineral density 0.3 -0.3
Lung Cancer 0.3 0.6 -1
ME/CFS with IBS 0.1 1 -9
ME/CFS without IBS 1.4 0.6 1.33
Menopause 0.5 0.5
Metabolic Syndrome 1.8 2.1 -0.17
Mood Disorders 4.2 2.3 0.83
multiple chemical sensitivity [MCS] 0.2 0.2 0
Multiple Sclerosis 2.8 0.8 2.5
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) 0.6 0.5 0.2
Neuropathy (all types) 0.4 0.4
neuropsychiatric disorders (PANDAS, PANS) 0 0
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (nafld) Nonalcoholic 0.2 2.3 -10.5
NonCeliac Gluten Sensitivity 0.3 -0.3
Obesity 2 1.4 0.43
obsessive-compulsive disorder 0.9 1.7 -0.89
Osteoarthritis 0.3 0.3
Osteoporosis 0.6 0.8 -0.33
pancreatic cancer 0 0
Parkinson's Disease 1.3 0.5 1.6
Polycystic ovary syndrome 0.5 0.5 0
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome 0.3 -0.3
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder 0.5 0 0
Psoriasis 0.6 0.8 -0.33
rheumatoid arthritis (RA),Spondyloarthritis (SpA) 1.6 0.6 1.67
Rosacea 0.8 0 0
Schizophrenia 2.1 0.5 3.2
scoliosis 0 0.5 0
Sjögren syndrome 0.3 0.7 -1.33
Sleep Apnea 0.5 0.9 -0.8
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) 0.5 -0.5
Stress / posttraumatic stress disorder 0.7 1.7 -1.43
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 1 0.7 0.43
Tic Disorder 0 0.3 0
Tourette syndrome 0.2 0.2 0
Type 1 Diabetes 0.5 0.2 1.5
Type 2 Diabetes 1.8 1.5 0.2
Ulcerative colitis 0.7 1.2 -0.71
Unhealthy Ageing 1.3 0.5 1.6

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